Linux磁盘管理----分区格式化挂载fdisk、mkfs、mount

1,磁盘分区命令fdisk

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l #查看磁盘分区情况

Disk /dev/sda: 10.8 GB, 10837518250 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1305 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280bytes

(这个硬盘的大小是10.8GB,有255个磁面,63个扇区,1305磁柱(cylinders)

每个cylinder(磁柱)的容量是8225280 bytes=8225.280K(约为)=8.225280M(约))

Device Boot      Start       End      Blocks    Id  system

/dev/sda1  *       1         13      104391    83  linux

/dev/sda2          14        1305     10377990   8e  Linux LVM

(ID和System表示的是分区类型,id看起来不太直观,我们要在fdisk创建一个分区时,可以指定id来确认分区类型;比如7表示的就NTFS分区;这个在fdisk中要通过参数“t”来指定。)

硬盘分区的表示:在Linux是通过hd*x或sd*x表示的:

其中*表示的是a、b、c ... ...

另外x表示的数字1、2、3 ... ...

hd大多是IDE硬盘;sd大多是SCSI或移动存储;引导(Boot):表示引导分区,在上面的例子中sda1是引导分区;

Start(开始):表示的一个分区从Xcylinder(磁柱)开始;

End(结束):表示一个分区到 Ycylinder(磁柱)结束;

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.4 GB,21474836480 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280bytes

Disk /dev/sdb doesn't contain a validpartition table

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sda  #对磁盘sda进行分区

Thenumber of cylinders for this disk is set to 1305.

There isnothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,

and couldin certain setups cause problems with:

1) softwarethat runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)

2)booting and partitioning software from other OSs

   (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)

(输入m可以得到帮助信息)

command(m for help):                   ---输出帮助信息

Commandaction

   a  toggle a bootable flag               ---设置启动分区

   b  edit bsd disklabel                 ---编辑分区标签

   c  toggle the dos compatibility flag         ---切换dos兼容模式

   d  delete a partition                --删除一个分区

   l  list known partition types            --列出分区类型

   m  print this menu                  --帮助

   n  add a new partition                --建立一个新的分区

   o  create a new empty DOS partition table      --创建一个新的空白DOS分区表

   p  print the partition table                 ---打印分区表

   q  quit without saving changes                ---退出不保存设置

   s   createa new empty Sun disklabel             ---创建新的sun磁盘标签

   t   changea partition's system id              ---改变分区的ID

   u   changedisplay/entry units                 ---改变显示的单位

   v   verifythe partition table                 ---检查验证分区表

   w  write table to disk and exit               ---保存分区表

   x  extra functionality (experts only)        ---扩展功能

Command (m for help): n (创建一个新分区)         

Command action

  e   extended

  p   primary partition (1-4)      ---指定分区类型  e为扩展分区  p为主分区

p (输入p选择创建主分区)

Partition number (1-4): 1 (创建第一个主分区,也即是后来的sda1) ---主分区最多只能有四个

First cylinder (1-2610, default 1): 1   ---设定起始分区的位置

Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK(1-2610, default 2610):2610

Using default value 2610            ---设定结束分区的位置

Command (m for help): w             ---保存刚才的配置信息。

The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

Syncing disks.

删除分区

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb   

The number of cylinders for this disk isset to 2610.

There is nothing wrong with that, but thisis larger than 1024,

and could in certain setups cause problemswith:

1) software that runs at boot time (e.g.,old versions of LILO)

2) booting and partitioning software fromother OSs

  (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)

Command (m for help): d    (---d 是代表删除,并且会列出当前磁盘的分区数)

Selected partition 1     (1 是要删除的分区编号)

Command (m for help): p    (---p 是代表删除后,显示磁盘还有几个剩余的分区)

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.4 GB, 21474836480 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280bytes

Device Boot     Start     End    Blocks  Id  System   已经没有分区了

Command (m for help): w    (---w 保存刚才的操作并且生效)

The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

通过fdisk 命令来创建一指定大小的分区并增加一个分区

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb

The number of cylinders for this disk isset to 2610.

There is nothing wrong with that, but thisis larger than 1024,

and could in certain setups cause problemswith:

1) software that runs at boot time (e.g.,old versions of LILO)

2) booting and partitioning software fromother OSs

  (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)

Command (m for help): n            ---创建分区

Command action

  e   extended

  p   primary partition (1-4)        

p                输入p --指定分区类型为主分区

Partition number (1-4): 1           --指定其实分区号

First cylinder (1-2610, default 1): 1      --指定起始柱面号

Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK(1-2610, default 2610): 1024 ---指定终止柱面号

Command (m for help): w            ---保存分区配置信息

The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition tablefailed with error 16: Device or resource busy.

The kernel still uses the old table.

The new table will be used at the nextreboot.

Syncing disks.

增加分区

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb      -----增加分区

 

The number of cylinders for this disk isset to 2610.

There is nothing wrong with that, but thisis larger than 1024,

and could in certain setups cause problemswith:

1) software that runs at boot time (e.g.,old versions of LILO)

2) booting and partitioning software fromother OSs

  (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)

 

Command (m for help): n       ---分区类型

Command action

  e   extended

  p   primary partition (1-4)    ---还是指定主分区

p

Partition number (1-4): 1          ---分区号,我指定1。

Partition 1is already defined.  Delete it beforere-adding it. 

–提示分区号1已经存在,删除后操作

Command (m for help): n          --我们重新创建分区

Command action

  e   extended

  p   primary partition (1-4)     --指定分区类型

p

Partition number (1-4): 2         ---因为分区1已经存在,所以我们指定分区2,可通过。

First cylinder (1025-2610, default 1025):    ---指定起始礠柱号,默认是上一分区后一号。

Using default value 1025

Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK(1025-2610, default 2610): 2000 指定终止柱号。

Command (m for help): w                   ---保存分区配置

The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition tablefailed with error 16: Device or resource busy.

The kernel still uses the old table.

The new table will be used at the nextreboot.

Syncing disks.

[root@localhost ~]#

通过fdisk命令来修改现有分区类型

fdisk 通过t参数来指定

查看分区类型

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l /dev/sdb   查看分区信息,类型是Linux,id是83

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.4 GB, 21474836480 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280bytes

Device Boot      Start        End      Blocks  Id  System

/dev/sdb1          1        1024    8225248+  83  Linux

/dev/sdb2         1025         2000       7839720   83  Linux

修改分区类型

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sdb

The number of cylinders for this disk isset to 2610.

There is nothing wrong with that, but thisis larger than 1024,

and could in certain setups cause problemswith:

1) software that runs at boot time (e.g.,old versions of LILO)

2) booting and partitioning software fromother OSs

  (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)

Command (m for help): t                       ---进入修改分区类型

Partition number (1-4): 1                     ---指定需要修改的分区号

Hex code (type L tolist codes): 6               ---指定分区号为6,也就是FAT16

注意:查看分区类型的代码,在这里可以输入L查看就可以了

Changed system type of partition 1 to 6(FAT16)

Command (m for help): w                           ---保存

The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition tablefailed with error 16: Device or resource busy.

The kernel still uses the old table.

The new table will be used at the nextreboot.

WARNING: If you have created or modifiedany DOS 6.x

partitions, please see the fdisk manualpage for additional

information.

Syncing disks.

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l /dev/sdb        ---我们看到已经FAT16,并且ID也改成6了

Disk /dev/sdb: 21.4 GB, 21474836480 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280bytes

 

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks  Id  System

/dev/sdb1          1             1024    8225248+   6  FAT16

/dev/sdb2         1025             2000    7839720   83  Linux

[root@localhost ~]#

 

mkfs对分区进行格式化

对分区进行格式化的命令如下,mkfs后面所接的代表的是将要格式化成的文件系统类型:

mkfs.bfs

mkfs.ext3

mkfs.ext4

mkfs.jfs

mkfs.msdos

mkfs.vfat

mkfs.cramfs

mkfs.minix

mkfs.reiserfs

mkfs.xfs

 

格式化分区:

[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1          ---格式化分区类型为ext4

mke4fs 1.41.5(23-Apr-2009)

Filesystem label=                            ---我们没有指定卷标,就没有

OS type: Linux                              ---操作系统类型

Block size=4096 (log=2)                        --单个块的大小

Fragment size=4096 (log=2)                      --片大小

1310720 inodes, 5241198blocks

262059 blocks (5.00%)reserved for the super user

First data block=0     

Maximum filesystem blocks=0

160 block groups

32768 blocks per group, 32768fragments per group

8192 inodes per group

Superblock backups stored on blocks:

        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912,819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,

        4096000

Writing inode tables:done                           

Creating journal (32768blocks): done

Writing superblocks andfilesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will beautomatically checked every 27 mounts or

180 days, whichever comesfirst.  Use tune4fs -c or -i to override.

 

mount挂载磁盘:(临时挂载)

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir/data             --创建挂载目录点

[root@localhost ~]# mount  /dev/sdb1 /data  --将/dev/sdb1 挂载到/data

验证是否成功挂载

[root@localhost ~]# df -h

Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/mapper/VolGroup00-LogVol00

                      7.7G  3.1G 4.2G  43% /

/dev/sda1        99M   12M  82M    13%  /boot

tmpfs           506M   0    506M   0%  dev/shm

/dev/sdb1         20G   16K  20G   1%  /data     --已经成功挂载了

[root@localhost ~]#

 

修改fstab表挂载磁盘(永久挂载)

通过vim编辑器编辑/etc/fstab文件,内容如下,(红色部分是刚添加上去的):

挂载路径    挂载的分区    文件系统  挂载参数    是否要备份   自检顺序

/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00/        ext3    defaults        1 1

LABEL=/boot     /boo          ext3    defaults        1 2

tmpfs         /dev/shm       tmpfs    defaults           0 0

devpts        /dev/pts       devpts  gid=5,mode=620        0 0

sysfs         /sys          sysfs   defaults           0 0

proc         /proc          proc    defaults        0 0

/dev/VolGroup00/LogVol01swap      swap    defaults        0 0

/data        /dev/sdb1       ext4     defaults           0 0

保存后执行命令 mount -a 加载最新配置

第四列挂载参数:通过查看man mount 来查看

第五列是否要备份:(0为不备份,1为要备份,一般情况下不用做备份)

第六列自检程序  (0为不自检,1或2为要自检,如果是根分区要设置1,其它分区只能是2)

 

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